National Product of the Major European Countries
in the 19th Century
(in millions of 1960 United States dollars)
Source: Paul Bairoch, "Europe's Gross National Product: 1800-1975," Journal of European Economic History 5 (1976): 281.
The figure given for each date except 1913 is a three-year average. The territory is the national territory as of the date given.
These figures are the result of complex deductions from and adjustments to contemporary data, and have a large margin of error, but they are widely accepted as the best figures we have. Some figures have an especially high margin of error: the German figures for the first two dates, the Russian and Italian figures for the first three dates, and all the Austrian figures.